What is ELK

What is ELK (Elastic search, Logstash, Kibana) ?

ELK stack is a combination of 3 open-source products as below,

  1. Elasticsearch, a search and analytics engine.
  2. Logstash, that index the data to Elasticsearch. Logstash has a config file that has input,filter and output section. Config file looks like json file.
  3. Kibana, a visualization tool which provides a web based GUI for a user. User can design the bar, plot reporting charts.
    In order to make Kibana and Elasticsearch interact, you need to make both server up and running. Then logstash will index the data to Elasticsearch. 
    Then Kibana would read the data from Elasticsearch and visualize it.

DevOps vs DevSecOps vs NetOps

What is DevOps vs DevSecOps vs NetOps ?

DevOps is the practice of using set of tools, processes and practices to get good agility in software implementation to customers. It combines Dev (software development ) and Ops (information operations). DevOps shortens the development lifecycles and provides Continous Integration & Delivery. 
DevSecOps is when security features are included in DevOps CI/CD flow.
NetOps is when network services are packaged to DevOps.

Jenkins job vs pipeline

What is Jenkins jobs and Jenkins pipeline ?

Jenkins jobs and Jenkins pipeline are essentially same, however pipeline is more staged flow of jobs. For Jenkins pipeline, Jenkinsfile is used.
What is Jenkinsfile?Jenkinsfile is a text file placed in the root project directory. The Jenkinsfile has multiple stages like build, unit test, sonar test, functional,  regression, integration,  performance testing, deployment etc.

How does Karate framework work

What is Karate Framework and API test automation is done using Karate ?


Karate framework is the only framework that combines API, Web Automation, mock and performance testing using Gatling. It supports some level of RPA/RDA testing by integrating Sikuli with it’s scritps.

Stackoverflow links related with Karate framework





Karate framework can be build using gradle or maven. If you already know Cucumber framework it is easy to learn Karate framework. Karate uses feature files and Karate specific DSL supports both API and Web automation. Karate’s Java runner file can call the feature file having Karate DSL to perform API transactions like GET, POST, PUT and DELETE.

Karate version 0.9.5 released in 2020 has the following features,

  1. Debug from Visual Source code IDE
  2. Hot reload, step over / into / out / back

In 2019, Karate started web automation. Karate 0.9.5 feature will make Karate as complete test automation framework supporting both API and Web automation. Also another point to be noted is Karate’s integration with Sikulix for Desktop automation, integration with Gatling for performance testing and Mocking support for API testing.

Performance testing tutorial

Performance testing tutorial – Advanced.

Jmeter Performance test scenario – Creating a Jmeter Performance test scenario

Thread Group: Thread group is the number of virtual users performing the transaction on application under test.

How to add Thread group?

  1. Right click on the TestPlan
  2. Select Add>Thread Group from the popup.

Performance testing best practices and activities.

Performance testing best practices and activities.

  1. As first step, Performance Engineer needs to learn the requirements, performance expectations & system architecture.

Note: To learn the performance requirements & expectations, SME (Subject matter expert ) or production user can help. This information will help to define performance goals and SLAs

  1. Then develop best matching performance test scenarios, approach, define goals (SLAs) & sign off test plan.

Note 1: To identify the right performance test scenarios, SME can give some feedback on about the current performance issues in production / live application that he/she is facing.

Note 2:  You can refer another blog of mine on different types of performance scenarios – click link load testing vs performance testing vs stress testing

  1. Now Performance Engineer can developer V– USER scripts and execute the scripts in Controller to generate performance analysis results

Note 1: Apart from delivering performance analysis results, Performance Engineer  can coordinate with other team to monitor real time performance on Database server, Application server and also make sure load balancing is working fine while stress testing.

Some of the e.g. when performance testing is needed

  1. for Database upgrade,
  2. Application upgrade,
  3. Or if user complains that application performance is bad – like page response is not meeting his/her expectations.

Performance testing vs Load testing vs Stress testing vs Endurance testing

1. Performance testing – The main purpose of Performance testing is to arrive the benchmark & baseline of the system behavior (e.g response time) under normal/moderate load. This test will help performance engineer  to analyse how does the application behave under normal conditions.

2. Load testing  – here load will be constantly and steadily increased over a given period of time. i.e the constant load applied for a constant period of time. For example a load of 100 users are applied for 15 min.

3. Stress test – it is meant to push the system beyond the normal load limits or extreme conditions. This test is to make sure the servers don’t crash or what point it crashes. Stress test will  verify the breaking point of the system or how much load, system can withstand.

For example a load of 100 users are applied for 15 min and then 150 users load is applied for next 15 min. then 200 users load is applied for next 15 min. Verify at what point system stopped to respond.

4. Endurance testing – for easy understanding, I would say it is a “Load testing on extended period” to make sure web servers are performing longer period of time. For example a load of 100 users are applied for 48 hours

Note: Once the performance testing is completed successfully, tester can assume the performance requirements are met and he can start load testing. After that Stress testing if required.

Load testing tools in the market are

1) HPE LoadRunner is from Hewlett Packard Enterprise.

2) JMeter – Apache JMeter. It is a Java based performance testing tool works on web communication layer (HTTP)

Summary about Jmeter and performance testing

Jmeter recording

How to create Jmeter scripts?

Recording Jmeter scripts using Jmeter’s HTTP(S) Test Script recorder. There are two ways

1)      Manually adding scripts ( Test plan >> Tread Group >> Add>> Sampler >> HTTP Request )

2)      Recording using Jmeter’s HTTP(S) Test Script recorder

How to record Jmeter scripts using HTTP(S) Test Script recorder

Prior doing that we need to configure browser and learn about the Proxy setup

Jmeter to Application server communication need to be routed through a browser Proxy for this recording purpose. For that you may need to select the Browser (here we can use Firefox browser”

1)      Navigate to Firefox >> Tools >> options >> Advanced >> Network >> Settings

2)      Select Manual Proxy configuration >> HTTP Proxy = localhost & Port = 8080

How to run Jmeter in Jenkins


Jenkins setup and performance plugin setup:
1) copy performance plugin into Jenkin’s home directry before you start the test.
2) to do that – you can download the performance plugin “performance.hpi” from the site https://wiki.jenkins-ci.org/display/JENKINS/Performance+Plugin
3) how to find the home directry of jenkins – to do that you can navigate to jenkins home page (localhost:8080) and then
4) click on “Manage Jenkins” and then click on “Configure system” the you will notice “Home directy” path in there.

Configure Jmeter and create a basic script in Jmeter:
5) download Jmeter Binary zip file from Jmeter site http://jmeter.apache.org/download_jmeter.cgi
6) unzip it and go to the “bin” directory of the Jmeter folder, wherre you will notice “user.properties” file.
7) open the file in notepad or notepad++ or any other text editor
8) add a line “jmeter.save.saveservice.output_format=xml” to that. Save and close the “user.properties” file
9) create a Jmeter script and make sure you can run it in non GUI mode i.e either in DOS mode or using shell scripts in MAC (note down the commands used in respective OS and it could be used in Jenkins job setup)
Note: for windows command line run, you can use the following commands

C:\[JMETER BIN directory]\jmeter.bat -Jjmeter.save.saveservice.output_format=xml -n -t C:\[JMETER script “.jmx” file] -l Jmeter_test_results.jtl

Note 1: For detailed topics on Jmeter scripts creation , please visit Jmeter , Jmeter recording 

setup Jenkin’s job to run Jmeter scripts
9) go to Jenkins home page (localhost:8080) and then click on “New Item” on “Freestyle project”
10) in the “New item” page, give some name in the item name field and go to below to section “Build” and add build step
11) add build step can be either a) “execute windows batch command” for windows or b) “Execute shell” for MAC
12) provide your command in there and save.
13) Click on “Build now” which would call the Jmeter (jmx) file and run the program
14) after the run, you can verify the Jenkins console to review the results.

What is Rendezvous point with reference to performance testing

Rendezvous point is Synchronization or Wait point. Rendezvous points makes Vusers to wait during test execution and multiple Vusers will simultaneously perform a task.

Rendezvous is mainly used to emulate heavy load on a particular scenario/ transaction to test the application behavior.

How to test the latency issues in Microsoft windows version upgrades

Latency issues generally occurs as a side effects of patch updates in windows. It may occur as audio/video streaming performance issues.
Latency issues can be tested using LatencyMon or Thesycon
Note : Thesycon is more effective on lower versions on windows like 7 or lower.

Web server vs Application server vs Database server

Web server serves a web content (HTML and static content) over the HTTP protocol.

Application server is a container on which one can build and expose business logic and processes to client applications through various protocols like HTTP. Some cases it will have internal web server. Application server is heavy in terms of resource usage.

Database server refers to the back-end system of a database application using client/server architecture. The database server performs tasks such as data analysis, storage, data manipulation, archiving, and other non-user specific tasks

What is Web server?

A Web server can process HTTP requests and respond with HTML pages, provided the requests are handled by server side programs

It uses HTTP protocol to transmit the request/responses. Here Web server handled both request/response and business logic. This is more rigid design.

A web transaction using web server will be like this as below,

Browser (click operation to display some results on a grid> ==> Request goes to web server (Apache HTTP server) ==> Database

Apache Jmeter key topics for basic level users.

Performance testing – Jmeter recording steps

Performance testing – load balancing

Performance testing – Load runner

Protractor vs Selenium

Protractor is a test framework mainly intended for Angular and AngularJS applications. Where as Selenium is developed for any Web Browser Automation. 

During Protractor execution you no longer need to add waits specifically to wait for your next test. Protractor can automatically execute the next step in your test the moment the webpage finishes pending transaction, but in selenium webpage sync has to be coded.

What is Julia

Julia is a programming language suited for Machine Learning. Julia has got lot of advantages compared to Python when it comes to Machine learning. 
Julia is compiled at run time and it uses Just in Time compiler and it is fast compiling.  Julia’s multiple dispatch very is fast and polymorphic dispatch allows for applying function definitions as properties of a struct.
Julia is specifically made for ML and statistics. Also if you check linear algebra,  Julia out performs than Python. For math related operations,  Julia works like R programming language and shows better performance than Python.

What is Selenoid

What is Selenoid ?

Selenoid is an alternative solution for Parallel Selenium test execution when you are not looking for Selenium Grid or Docker selenium.

Like the way Docker selenium out perform over selenium grid, Selenoid also has the advantage over selenium grid being dockerized.

Selenoid has successful implementation of docker containers to kick start browser tests. It provides fresh environment for each test.

In selenoid tests, containes starts with test and getting removed with test execution ends. This gives good performance for this design.

as first step of configuration , you may need to install docker and run selenoid on docker containers. Selenoid-ui is used to track test execution gui mode.